Livestock Feed Raw Material Business


Livestock Feed manu­facturing refers to the process of producing animal feed from raw agricultural products.

Fodder produced by manufac­turing is formulated to meet spe­cific animal nutrition require­ments for different species of animals at different life stages.

Most livestock farmers have one major goal in mind, and that is raising healthy and fat livestock.

Yes, livestock farmers want their herds to be fat so that they can be attractive to buyers as most livestock are sold based on their weights and how healthy they look. For the animals to be healthy, they must feed on good foods made with the right ingre­dients like whole wheat, bone meal, palm kernel cake, oyster shells and a lot of other ingre­dients.

Feed ingredients for live­stock diets are selected for the nutrients they can provide, the absence of anti-nutritional or toxic factors, their palatability or effect on voluntary feed in­take, and their cost.

The key nutrients that need to be supplied by the dietary in­gredients are amino acids con­tained in proteins, vitamins and minerals. All life functions also require energy, obtained from starches, lipids and proteins.

Feed Raw Materials

Feed raw materials are broad­ly classified into:-

• Cereal Grains: The term “cereal gains” here includes ce­real grains, cereal by-products and distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS). Cereal grains are used mainly to satisfy the energy requirement of poul­try. The dominant feed grain is corn, rice, Sorghum, wheat etc.

• Protein Meals: Protein is provided from both vegeta­ble and animal sources, such as oilseed meals, legumes and abattoir and fish processing by-products. Vegetable protein sources usually come as meal or cake, the by-product of oilseed crops. The main oilseed crops in­clude soybean, rapeseed/canola, sunflower, palm kernel, copra, linseed peanut and sesame seed. After the oil is extracted, the re­maining residue is used as feed ingredient. Oilseed meals make up 20-30% of a poultry diet. The main animal protein sources used in livestock diets are meat meal, meat and bone meal, fish meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and feather meal.

Fats and Oils: Fats and oils, collectedly termed lipids, are regularly used in livestock feed to satisfy the energy need of the animal as lipids have more than twice the amount of ME compared with carbohydrates or proteins per kg weight. Lip­ids are also an important carrier for fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) as wells for the provision of an essential fatty acid, linole­ic acid, in the diet. A variety of fats and oils are used in feed, in­cluding lipids of animal origins (usually fats, tallow, lard, except fish oil) and lipids of vegetable origin (usually oils, i.e., soy oil, canola/rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil, palm oil, cotton­seed oil).

In practical feed formulation, the level of lipids rarely exceeds 4% in compound feed. However, even a small decrease in digest­ibility can cost dearly in terms of dietary energy.

Minerals: Minerals are vital for normal growth and develop­ment in livestock, such as bone formation and body process­es such as enzyme activation.

Some minerals such calcium and phosphorus are required in large quantities. For example, laying hens require between 3.5-4% calci­um, 0.3-0.4% available phosphorus and 0.2% sodium in their diets for egg production. Other minerals, such as copper, iron, manganese, zinc, selenium, cobalt, iodine and molybdenum, are required in mil­ligram quantities but deficiency of these minerals will lead to serious health problems in mild cases and death in severe cases.

Similarly, vitamins are essential for the body systems of poultry. Both fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water soluble (biotin, choline, folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and B12) are needed in the diet to maintain proper health and wellbeing of livestock.

Some vitamins and minerals are provided by most ingre­dients but the requirements for vitamins and minerals are generally met through premix­es added to the diet. Diets may also contain additives for specif­ic purposes. These are discussed in more detail in the section on feed additives.

• Feed Additives: The diet of animals and humans contain a wide variety of additives. How­ever, in livestock diets these ad­ditives are primarily included to improve the efficiency of the animal growth and/or lay­ing capacity in poultry, prevent disease and improve feed util­isation. Any additives used in feed must be approved for use and then used as directed with respect to inclusion levels and duration of feeding. They are also specific for the type and age of animals being fed. Agric Zyme organic Agro inputs has been proven to be one of the best feed additives in livestock farm­ing business.

• Miscellaneous Raw Materials, Such as Roots and Tubers.

The is a business to venture into in Nigeria with the estima­tion that Nigerian is to be rak­ing in over N800 billion from this sector of Agribusiness as consumption of livestock is in­creasing daily. At present, the to­tal supply of all the locally pro­duced feedstock does not appear to be sufficient to meet demands. All most all the raw materials are locally sourced.

Read Original Report Here By Independent

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