Building a fish is more than just filling your dug with water as well as fish. You must know the different steps in building a proper fish pond to be able to earn money from it in the future. There are few things that you need to consider before starting to build a fish pond. Now, there are different types of ponds, some of the examples are:
• Plastic fish pond OR otherwise known as mobile fish pond
• Wooden fish pond.
• Concrete fish pond
• River/Stream fish pond: This is practiced by constructing a barrier to control the population and movement of the fishes in a particular area of a natural river or stream.
• Earthen pond: This kind of fish pond is said to be the most preferred type by some farmers because of the presence of some micro-organisms which aid the breeding of the fishes. It is also known as the oldest form of fish pond in Nigeria. It is dug to an extent beneath the surface of the earth to allow the action of capillary water in the soil to take place, just like in the case of a well water system but must not become too deep must also have in enough space. This system should be shallow, preferably in a location close to a natural form of water like river or stream. Now let’s get started!
Conditions Necessary for Siting a Fish Pond
Availability of Water: Fishes are aquatic animals, as their life depends entirely on water. The water must be free from pollutants, colour, smell, and taste. The resources may be streams, rivers, boreholes or springs.
Availability of Fingerlings: The fingerlings to be used must be the fast-growing type. Moreso, they must have high feed convertibility. Ideally, the fingerlings must be ready to be harvested at about seven months from the time of hatching.
Vegetation of the Place: Light vegetation is ideal, preferably grassland. This will be easy to clear, sump and excavate before siting the fish pond.
Topography: The land must be flat, but must allow the gentle flow of water from a higher region to a lower region. The area must not be floody, but if floody, then construct embankment and other barriers early enough.
Soil Particles: The floor of the area must contain clayey soils because this helps to retain water. Also the soil must be rich in order to survive the fingerlings.
Size and Location: The size depends on the availability of funds, and the type of fish farming to be practiced. Therefore, for commercial fish farming a large expanse of land is required. The location can be either in the lowland or upland.
Availability of Feeds: Fishes are usually supplied with supplementary feed especially during the day. This includes kitchen products, vegetables, as well as manure and fertilizers which should be supplied to enhance the growth of planktons.
Location of the Hatchery: The hatchery should not be not be too far from the fish pond. Fingerlings are very fragile and die off easily, hence when released from the hatchery must be sent immediately into the pond.
Availability of Labour: The availability of labour should be considered. Fish pond should be in a place where labour supply is high, since the work is labour intensive, that is, clearing, stumping, excavation of the land, feeding of fish down to harvesting and processing activities.
Establishment of a Fish Pond
Before fish pond is established, certain operations must be carried out. They include the following:
Site selection, surveying of the land, clearing and stumping of site, construction of core trench, construction of spill way, impoundment of pond, pond fertilization, pond inoculation, liming.
I’ll briefly discuss those terms you might not be familiar with.
Construction of Core Trench:
This involves the removal of soil.
Soil can also be escavated.
Position should be at right angle to the dam.
Consolidated walls with stones and cement (concrete pond)
Construction of Spill Way:
· Position at one end of dam
· Use wood and fire-meshed screen.
Impoundment Of fish Pond
· Filling of pond with water.
· Done by opening the monk board of the reservoir.
· Water released to flow and fill pond.
· Fertilization encourages the growth of micro-flora.
· By pouring organic fertilizers such as poultry droppings, cow dungs or use of inorganic ones like N.P.K or super phosphate or liming.
· Carried out 15 days before stocking pond with fish.